UNION OF SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION MUNICIPALITIES REGIONAL DAMAGE ASSESSMENT REPORT

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UNION OF SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION MUNICIPALITIES REGIONAL DAMAGE ASSESSMENT REPORT August 2015 – January 2016

http://www.gabb.gov.tr

info@gabb.gov.tr

gabbinternational@gmail.com 2

CONTENTS

The Overall Balance Sheet ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

1. METHODOLOGY of THE SURVEY AND ITS TIME SPAN ……………………………………………………. 6

2. PHYSICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES ………………………………………………………………. 8

I. MARDİN-DARGEÇİT (Survey conducted on October, 26, 27, and 28) ……………………………… 8

II. MARDİN-NUSAYBİN (Survey conducted on October 26-28, and November 27-28) …………… 9

III. MARDİN – DERİK (Survey conducted on December 4) ………………………………………………. 12

IV. DİYARBAKIR – SİLVAN (Survey conducted on November 16, 17, and 18) ………………………. 14

V. DİYARBAKIR – SUR (A study conducted by TMMOB (UCTEA – Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects) in October)………………………………………………………………………….. 16

VI. DİYARBAKIR – BİSMİL (Survey conducted by TMMOB (UCTEA – Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects) in October)……………………………………………………………….. 19

VII. DİYARBAKIR – LİCE ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

IX. HAKKARI – YUKSEKOVA ………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

X. HAKKARİ – ŞEMDİNLİ …………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

XI. ŞIRNAK – CİZRE (Survey conducted by the TMMOB (UCTEA – Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects) in September 2015) ………………………………………………………………. 24

XII. ŞIRNAK – SİLOPİ ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26

XIII. ŞIRNAK – BEYTÜŞŞEBAP ……………………………………………………………………………………… 27

XIV. MUŞ – VARTO …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

3. PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY MUNICIPALITIES ……………………………………………………………. 31

4. PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY WOMEN ……………………………………………………………………… 34

ANNEX………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..36 3

About GABB The Union of South-eastern Anatolian Region Municipalities is an official institution with 117 member municipalities directly involved in problems of settlements served by these municipalities. It also attempts’ to find radical solutions to problems witnessed by member municipalities. In this respect, it aims at providing structural and sustainable solutions to a wide range of problems from water, sewage and other infrastructure problems to urbanization-construction problems, socio-economical troubles and ecological problems. GABB, thusly, aims at increasing the capacities of our cities and local administrations to cope with these problems by strengthening them.

The leading problems recently faced by our region can be classified as war, conflict, migration, asylum seekers and natural disasters. We had Van earthquake in 2011, while in 2014, the region received an immense flow of migration in the aftermath of ISIS massacres of Shingali Yazidis, followed by the migration of Kobanê people to cities like Suruç, Adıyaman, Şanlıurfa and Diyarbakir as part of Kobanê War of the same year. GABB recognized these as disaster and emergency situations and attempted to find a solution to this humanitarian crisis with the local administrations. Its particular activities were concentrated on organizing logistic support in times of war, disaster and emergency situations; strengthening the solidarity networks among member municipalities, raising awareness in the international society and publishing regular reports. About the Report Hereby report includes a balance sheet of the severe damage created by the conflict in the region following 7th of June Turkish General Elections. The report includes the assessment of damage and ecological destruction in conflicted towns affected by curfews with respect to women’s suffering and life and right violations in general.

Curfews and high intensity clashes were still ongoing in Sur, Cizre and Silopi at the time when the report was being prepared; therefore, the report does not include the final situation of the damage in these towns. As of the lettering of this report, conflicts continue in towns like Cizre, Silopi, Nusaybin, Dargeçit, Sur. Field studies aiming at gathering data related to the damage assessment reported hereby were conducted before December 2015 when heavy weapons and military units were deployed in city centres. The damage on humans, number of people forced to emigrate and buildings destroyed and became dysfunctional severely increased -and continues to 4

increase- since December 2015 in the region in general and in these towns in particular. The destruction caused by heavy weapons used in town centres, leads to a serious accommodation problem of the population assumed to be temporarily displaced. According to the data issued on 11 January 2016 by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 50 pct of overall 439 thousand of population in Cizre and Silopi/Sırnak; Sur/Diyarbakir, Nusaybin/Mardin were adversely affected by the clashes. This was announced to be 220 thousand 400 people. Number of people emigrated from these four towns were reported to be around 93 thousand. Given the practical impossibility of coming up with exact figures in times of internal migration, it is highly possible that this figure is much higher. As a result of information from local resources, it can be said that emigration flow is generally towards nearby rural and urban districts. An internal immigration route is reported from Cizre and Silopi to Şırnak city center, from Nusaybin to Mardin city center and from Silvan and Sur to other districts at the city center. According to the estimated data we gathered from our interviews with the municipalities, deputies and related humanitarian aid associations, the ongoing emigration flow is twice as big as the figures of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and it continues to get worse.

The Overall Balance Sheet

The data coming from institutions like the Human Rights Association, Mesopotamia Lawyer’s Association, Turkish Association of Human Rights, Mesopotamia Ecology Movement, The Bar of Diyarbakir, depicts a seriously concerning picture with regards to human right violations. The blockages which were firstly announced in Varto in August 16 under the name of “curfew,” went on in three towns, namely Cizre, Silopi and Sur. 56 curfews have been announced up until now in 20 towns of 7 cities, amounting to overall 288 labour days. Following is the general situation in three towns where ongoing curfews have been announced as of 10 January 2016: The last curfew in Cizre which witnessed 5 curfews in total was announced in 14.12.2015. 45 civilians have been killed in the blockage that has been going on for 28 days. 78 civilians lost their lives in Cizre since July 2015. The last curfew in Silopi which witnessed 2 curfews in total was announced in 14.12.2015. In the blockage that has lasted for 28 days, 26 civilians have lost their lives. Since July 2015, overall 39 civilians have lost their lives in Silopi. 5

The last curfew was announced in 02.12.2015 in Sur which witnessed 6 curfews in total. 16 civilians have lost their lives in the blockage that has been going on for 40 days. The number of civilians who have lost their lives since July 2015 in Sur is 20.

When we have a look at the overall balance sheet of the clashes as of 10 January 2016; 397 civilians, of which 56 are kids and 78 are women lost their lives in 20 July 2015 – 10 January 2016. 6

1. METHODOLOGY of THE SURVEY AND ITS TIME SPAN

FIGURE No 1: The geographic locations of settlements that have been affected by the clashes in the region. The affected settlements include the districts of Varto, Nusaybin, Dargeçit, Lice, Dicle, Silvan, Sur, Bismil, Beytüşşebap, Silopi, Cizre, Şemdinli, Yüksekova, and İpekyolu. The GABB (the Union of South-eastern Anatolia Region Municipalities) has pursued three research methods for the field studies: 1. A common and standard damage assessment survey form has been created in the meetings with Diyarbakir, Mardin, and Van Province Coordination Committees of the TMMOB (the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects) (see. Appendix 1). This form was used during the field visits (in Suriçi, Nusaybin, Cizre, Dargeçit, Dicle and Bismil). 2. Technical teams have been created among the engineers, architects, and technicians form the GABB-member municipalities. These technical teams, which averagely consist of 50 members, conducted field studies in Suriçi, Nusaybin, Silvan, Derik. 3. For a number of districts which were affected by the clashes (Şemdinli, Yüksekova, Lice, Varto, Beytüşşebap), damage assessment reports that had been prepared by the district municipalities with their own capacities or with the help of neighbouring municipalities were requested and archived. 7

The clashes did not take place simultaneously in the districts. In certain places (e.g., Nusaybin, Suriçi), clashes as well as curfews took place for more than once. Therefore, this report covers the time period from August to December 2015.

Additionally, the Union contacted the Emergency Architects Foundation, a France-based non-governmental organization that conducts damage assessment studies for the situations of conflict and natural disasters, and invited a delegation to the region. The delegation visited districts of Suriçi, Silvan ve Cizre and published a report on their observations.1 For the report see. Appendix 2.

1 See. Appendix 2, Link:

https://www.dropbox.com/sh/67i09z5xaujazm5/AABPRj0a7CISmo2c4Rjil8P9a?dl=0

http://www.archi-urgent.com/pdf/pages/actus/turquie-2015/2015_11_05_CP_Turquie.pdf 8

2. PHYSICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES

I. MARDİN-DARGEÇİT (Survey conducted on October, 26, 27, and 28) According to 2014 Address Based Population Registration System: District Population: 28.891 (Villages included) Population directly affected by the clashes: Saray, Tepebaşı, Bahçebaşı ve Safa neighbourhoods, total population 15355

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